S.O.R. 182


In 1960, when the Air Force solicited proposals for a new transport aircraft it issued a 'Specific Operational Requirements' document that defined its needs.   This was called SOR 182.  A copy of the original document was obtained from the AMC History Office, courtesy of Mark L. Morgan (AMC Historian).

After scanning the document and doing a little OCR magic (and a lot of hand tweaking), what follows is the complete document.  I have tried to duplicate the original formatting as faithfully as possible.  If there are spelling errors they are a result of me missing them in the OCR conversion ... the original copy didn't have any errors that I could see.

SOR 182, issued on 4 May, 1960, was supplemented in August of the same year with a short addendum called SOR 182-1 which clarified and restated a few of the original SOR 182 requirements.  This document follows immediately after SOR 182.

The most amazing thing about SOR 182 is its size: eight short pages (seven if you consider that the last page contains just a single sentence and a signature block).  The clarifications contained in SOR 182-1 are only four pages.

You will find that you can read through both documents in about 10 minutes.  There are a few gems to be found.  For example, the original specs called for the crew latrine to be located on the flight deck. Thank goodness Lockheed convinced the AF that was not a good idea.  The AF asked for "austere heating" to "preclude freezing of cargo".  As all you dead-headers know, they got exactly what they asked for.

I've never done any bidding on aircraft projects, but I can tell you from my business experience that any government related RFP's I've ever seen consist of hundreds (or even thousands) of pages of government b.s. and enough lawyer speak to keep just about any project from ever getting off the ground.

It was a different world back in 1960.  If only we could go back!!


                            FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
                         DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE
                     HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE
                             WASHINGTON 25, D. C.
AFORQ                                          S.O.R. No.    182     
                                               DATE     4 May 1960   
                       SPECIFIC OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENT
                                  FOR
                 A CARGO TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT SUPPORT SYSTEM

PURPOSE.  This Specific Operational Requirement establishes the need for
a cargo aircraft support system to be used in both military and commercial
operations.
    1. OPERATIONAL MISSION. This support system will provide a rapid,
reliable, efficient means of airlifting:
       a. Combat or support units of all Services under General or
Limited Emergency conditions.
       b. Military logistic supplies.
       c. Commercial cargo and mail.
    2. ENEMY EFFECTIVENESS ESTIMATES.  See Headquarters USAF SOR
Intelligence Annex.  Additionally, island base refueling is not desirable
and may not be feasible in General War and is impracticable under certain
Limited War conditions.  Also, overfly rights in certain areas of the
world are indeterminable.  Therefore, range requirements expressed herein
are consistent with these considerations.
    3. FRIENDLY ENVIRONMENT.
       a.   General. 
           
           (1)  This system may operate into and out of all established
world wide air bases.
          
           (2)  Under certain conditions, military operations may be
conducted on a limited basis from airfields having no ground support
capability.  Therefore, the need for ground support equipment in connection
with military operations will be minimized.  For commercial operations,
ground support equipment will be available (See paragraph 6m). 
           (3)  These aircraft are expected to be available for emergency
use from both military and commercial sources. 
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         b. Ground Equipment. 
           
            (1)  The CAR runway length requirement for this system, at
normal maximum takeoff weight, will not exceed 6,000 feet and a short
distance is highly desirable. 
         
            (2)  The normal ground turning radius of the aircraft should
permit 180° turns on a runway 150 feet wide. 
       
        c.  Ground Support Facilities. 
   
            (1)  Maintenance.  Easy maintenance and inspection access to 
major aircraft components and subsystems is required. Design criteria 
for all components should minimize dependence upon ground support 
facilities for maintenance and inspection purposes.  Items which are 
necessarily complicated should be designed for quick and easy unit 
removal and installation. 
          
            (2) Loading. The aircraft floor must approximate the level 
plane (+1.5°) and truck bed height (approximately 48 inches) during 
loading operations to facilitate efficient loading from trucks and 
trailers.
 
            (3) Personnel. All design considerations must be pointed 
toward maximum reliability and minimum personnel support requirements.
 
    4. CONCEPT OF OPERATION AND SUPPORT.  In the military role the
aircraft will be employed in both inter and intra-theater operations.
In the civil role the aircraft will be employed in both domestic and 
international operations.  The primary use of the aircraft will be to 
transport military and commercial cargo.  The aircraft will be capable 
of world wide, all weather operations from established air bases.
    
    5.  LIMITATION OF PRESENT SYSTEMS.  Most of the transport systems
now in the military and civil inventories are qualitatively inadequate
and due to their age have become increasingly costly and difficult to 
maintain.  Transport aircraft currently being procured by the Air Force 
and the U. S. airlines are also qualitatively inadequate with respect to 
the requirement against which this document is written.
    
    6.  OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE.
    
        a.  Structural Capacity.  The structural capacity of the aircraft 
should be between 70,000 and 80,000 pounds.  The floor should be stressed
to approximately 200 pounds per square foot or more and have a crushing 
strength of approximately 750 pounds per square inch.  These criteria
apply to the loading ramp and entire cabin, including the extra crew
compartment.
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        b.  Cargo Cube Capacity.  The cargo capacity of the aircraft
should be not less than 6,000 cubic feet of useable space in the cabin 
and extra crew compartment.  In recognition of cargo stacking height 
limitations, this capacity should be insured by providing approximately
700 square feet or more of floor space for cargo loading purposes. 
        c.  Bulky Cargo Capacity. The cargo envelope, i.e., the rectan-
gular space required for a single item of cargo or a collection of smaller 
items, will not be less than 70 feet long, 10 feet wide and 9 feet high, 
including the extra crew compartment. 
     
        d.  Scanning/Safety Aisle.  A full length unobstructed scanning/
safety aisle 14 inches wide to provide easy passage by an average 
sized person is required and will in no way compromise the cargo envelope 
referred to in paragraph c above.  (If practicable, the aisle may be a 
walkway installed in the curve of the fuselage above the floor). 
        e.  Extra Crew Compartment.  A compartment for an extra crew,
with provisions for three bunks, galley, garbage receptacle, and equip-
ment storage space for the entire crew is required.  The facility should be 
engineered as a portable or quick-removable unitized item.  Addition-
ally, the partition between the extra crew compartment and the basic
cargo compartment should be easily removable in order to increase cargo
cube when the extra crew facilities are not required.  This design
feature is particularly important considering both the commercial and 
military use and the increased operational flexibility where increased
payload for shorter ranges outweigh the requirement for the extra crew
compartment. 
        f.  Range. 
            (1)  Military.  The EWP range requirement approximates
4,000 N.M. under Mil C 5011-A fuel reserve criteria.  An exception is in
the Pacific area where the range requirement approximates 5,500 N.M. per 
Mil C 5011-A.  Fuel for the 4,000 N.M. will be contained in the wing area 
whereas the tankage required for the additional 1,500 N.M. can be located 
at the designer's discretion except that no fuel will be located in the 
cabin or adjacent to the cockpit area.  The EWP payload of between 50,000 
to 60,000 pounds for a distance of 4,000 N.M. will be accomplished with a 
load factor (maneuver) of at least 2.5 (3.75 ultimate).  In recognition 
of the need for a balance of design characteristic a, the EWP payload for 
the 5,500 N.M. range condition will be at least 20,000 pounds and may be 
accomplished at some reduction in load factor but in no case less than a
load factor of 2.25. 
           (2)  Civil.  The civil range requirement is based on the air 
carrier's needs of serving trade centers and communities throughout, a 
system comprised primarily of medium to transcontinental ranges and 
trans-Atlantic distances.  A range of approximately 3,000 N.M. with full
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payload (60,000 pounds) and CAR fuel reserves, is generally the upper
limit for the majority of commercial operations. 
     
        g.  Altitude.  Considering mission dependability and flight 
safety aspects, an "over weather" cruising capability is required. 
Consistent with the other design requirements stipulated herein, 
the most efficient cruise altitude is desired and in no case less than
25,000 feet for initial cruise conditions. 
        h.  Speed.  Cruise speed will be a by-product of the overall 
design, however, the highest possible cruise speed is desired.  Traffic 
pattern speed should approximate those speeds of the aircraft which it
will replace i.e., C-124, C-118).  
        i.  Landing and Takeoff Distance.  The aircraft at its normal 
takeoff weight, i.e., that weight required to transport a payload of 
between 50,000 and 60,000 pounds a distance of 4,000 N.M. (Mil C 5011-A), 
will require a runway length of no more than 6,000 feet to take off and 
land (at maximum landing weight) under CAR transport category rules. 
        j.  Personnel/Air Evacuation Capabilities.  The aircraft is
basically a cargo aircraft and will be designed as such.  However, in
recognition of certain Emergency War Plan requirements and peacetime
training considerations, the aircraft will be equipped with a total of
80 light-weight folding troop seats located in two rows, one on each
side of the cabin.  Provisions for installation of 42 temporary litters
in two rows, triple tiered, will be located in the middle of the cabin.
These provisions will be at an absolute minimum cost in terms of money,
space and weight and further, will in no way compromise the cargo  
envelope cross section of a minimum of 10' x 9'. 
       k.  Safety and Comfort Provisions.  Provisions for safety of crew, 
troops and cargo, and comfort of the troops and crew should include the 
following: 
            (1)  Emergency oxygen for eight crew members and 80 troops 
for five hours duration. The crew oxygen system should be integral 
with the aircraft whereas the troop oxygen may be of the portable type. 
            (2)  One permanent crew latrine, installed on the flight
deck, and two portable latrines for the troops. 
            (3)  One portable galley for the crew and one portable
galley for the troops. 
            (4)  Pressurization throughout the crew compartment and
cabin to provide a cabin altitude of 8,000 feet up to all normal
operational altitudes. 
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            (5) Soundproofing, ventilation and heating in the crew 
compartment should be in consonance with FAA requirements.     
            (6) Soundproofing in the cabin (military version) as 
required to preclude the necessity for ear defenders (on the basis 
of ten-hour flight).
            (7) Austere heating and ventilation provisions in the 
cabin as required to preclude freezing of cargo and adverse effect 
upon the health of troops.
      1. Loadability.  The aircraft should possess the following 
loadability features:
  
           (1)  Straight-in tail loading will be the primary means of 
cargo access to the aircraft.
           (2)  A truck-bed height (approximately 48 inches) floor 
that is approximately level. NOTE: This consideration is applicable 
during the loading and unloading operation and does not necessarily 
preclude the incorporation of a multiple-position gear which might 
enhance the aerodynamic and/or flying safety characteristics of the 
aircraft.
           (3)  A side loading door will be included as a secondary 
loading orifice. This door will be located in the forward portion of 
the cargo compartment. The size of the door will be not less than 108 
inches wide by 78 inches high.
           (4)  Materials handling equipment, including load 
restraining systems, should be integral with the aircraft insofar as 
is practicable. Such equipment should be compatible, where necessary, 
with equipment procured for 4.63L. Load unitization devices will not be 
a design consideration procurement-wise and will not be considered as 
part of the payload.
           (5) Tie-down devices of 5,000 pounds capacity should be 
provided on a 20 inch grid pattern except fittings on extreme sides of 
aircraft floor which should possess a capacity of 10,000 pounds. These 
criteria apply to the entire cabin including extra crew compartment and 
loading ramp.
           (6) A cargo jettison/airdrop capability is required in the 
military version.  This requirement will involve the following factors:
                 (a) Capability of opening the tail loading doors in
flight at reduced airspeeds in order that all or part of the cargo may be 
jettisoned during emergency flight conditions or air-dropped when 
desirable from a mission standpoint.
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                 (b) Personnel exit doors, one on either side of the 
aircraft fuselage, for dropping of airborne troops.
                 (c) This requirement will be carefully considered
design-wise in order to minimize the impact on other aircraft performance 
specifications. Of equal importance, the jettison/airdrop capability 
will be designed so as to permit production deletion for the commercial 
version.
        m. Auxiliary Power Requirements. All power requirements will 
be satisfied by integral units which can be easily removed.
        n. Communications. The aircraft must possess communications 
equipment to facilitate control from command post(s) located anywhere 
in the world. In addition, the aircraft must possess equipment which 
will allow unrestricted world wide operations. Dual or backup com-
munications systems are not required. The aircraft will be equipped 
with an intercommunications system that will permit communication between 
the aircraft commander, loadmaster, cabin occupants and certain ground 
control personnel outside of, but adjacent to, the aircraft. For the 
commercial version, suitable communications equipment will be provided 
in accordance with FAA regulations.
        o. Navigation. The military version of the aircraft must possess 
appropriate navigation equipment to facilitate world wide operations. For 
the commercial version, suitable navigation equipment will be provided in 
accordance with FAA regulations.
        p. Electronic Compatibility. Considering the employment of the 
civil aircraft in support of military missions, a direct interchangeability 
of electronic gear and components is highly desirable. To maximum 
practicable degree, communications, navigation and electronic equipment of 
common design will be used in both the civil and military aircraft versions.
   7. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS.
        a. Design Philosophy, Military. The aircraft depicted herein 
should be well within the state-of-the-art of aircraft design in the 
interest of minimizing development time and costs. In this connection, 
only developed (production status in 1963) powerplants should be utilized. 
For design purposes, aircraft performance will be based upon powerplants 
which will be qualified or type certificated by July 1963. Additionally, 
the aircraft should be of a relatively simple, conventional design, 
devoid insofar as possible of special systems to accomplish the design 
goals. Emphasis should be placed upon efficiency of design in order to 
minimize operating costs. Commercially available components will be
utilized wherever feasible.
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        b. Design Philosophy. Civil.  An efficient, low operating cost 
cargo aircraft in civil domestic and international operations will 
support military lift requirements during peace and war. The civil 
operators have a vital need for an efficient cargo aircraft to operate
in daily commerce, and low direct operating cost is therefore a 
significant requirement. It is essential that maximum compatibility 
between civil and military requirements be achieved in the basic design 
in order to insure an adequate air cargo capacity to meet the needs of 
national defense, the postal service t and to promote the development of 
air commerce in the U. S. and abroad.   
        c. Design Priority. In the event that the military and civil 
requirements lead to design conflicts, first emphasis will be placed on 
meeting the military requirement.
        d.  Standards . Wherein FAA standards are specified, applicable 
provisions of the UGAF HIAD are waived.
        e.  Miscellaneous. The following design features will conform 
to FAA standards unless otherwise noted:
            (1) Cockpit.  The requirements of cockpit visibility will 
receive emphasis to insure compliance with FAA standards.
            (2) Fuel Dumping Provisions. Fuel dumping provisions will 
be incorporated.
            (3) Refueling Provisions. Single point refueling provisions 
are required.
            (4) Thrust Augmentation.  Auxiliary thrust augmentation, 
other than water injection, is not desired. Thrust reversers are required.
            (5) Sound Suppressors. Provisions for powerplant sound 
suppressors should be included.
        f.  Air Worthiness Standards.  The aircraft shall be designed 
and shown to comply with the Civil Air Regulations, transport category, 
at the civil pay load, range and field size specified.
        g.  Trainer Requirement.  A Flight Simulator with cockpit 
procedures (normal and emergency) and &n instrument procedures training 
capability is required.  This trainer should be compatible with the  
cockpit configuration and instrument performance characteristics of this 
aircraft.
        h.  Operational Testing. Operational testing in accordance with 
AFR 80-36 will be the responsibility of MATS.
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   8. AVAILABILITY. This system is required to be operational as soon
as practicable,  in no case later than Fiscal Year 1964.
//signed//
B. K. HOLLOWAY
Major General, USAF
Director of Operational Requirements
DCS/Operations
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                      DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE
                  HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE
                          WASHINGTON 25, D. C.
AFORQ                                          S.O.R. No.    182-1     
                                               DATE     15 August 1960   
                           AMENDMENT TO
                  SPECIFIC OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENT
S.O.R. No. 182, dated 4 May I960 for "A Cargo Transport Aircraft 
Support System" is amended as follows:
*            *            *            *            *            *          *
      3. FRIENDLY ENVIRONMENT
*            *            *            *            *            *          *
           c.  Ground Support Facilities.
           (1)  Maintenance. Easy maintenance and inspection access to 
major aircraft components, and subsystems is required. Design criteria for 
all components should minimize dependence upon ground support facilities 
for maintenance and inspection purposes. Items which are necessarily com-
plicated should be designed for quick and easy unit removal and installation.
The APU should not be required in flight and be easily started on the ground
from aircraft battery. (See paragraph 6m).
           (2) Loading. The aircraft floor must approximate the level 
plane (+/- 1.5°) and truck bed height (approximately 48 inches) during loading 
operations to facilitate efficient loading from trucks and trailers.  An 
integral loading ramp will be provided of sufficient length that during 
vehicular loading operations the angle of inclination will not exceed 11°.
*            *            *            *            *            *          *
     6. OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE.
        a. Structural Capacity.  The structural capacity of the aircraft 
should be approximately 70,000 pounds. The floor should be stressed to 
approximately 200 pounds per square foot or more and have a crushing strength 
of approximately 750 pounds per square inch. These criteria apply to the 
loading ramp and entire cabin, including the extra crew compartment.  The 
zero fuel weight and landing weight criteria shall permit a flight of 1000 N.M. 
(Mil C 5011A fuel reserve) with 60,000 pounds of cargo. A landing gear UCI of 
50 is required for this mission at normal tire pressures.
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         c. Bulky Cargo Capacity. The cargo envelope, i.e., the rectangular 
space required for a single item of cargo or a collection of smaller items,
will not be less than 70 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 9 feet high, including 
the extra crew compartment. These dimensions include consideration for all
clearances except the safety aisle. The extra crew compartment should not
exceed seven feet in length and be located in the forward extremity of the
cabin.
*            *            *            *            *            *          *
         f.  Range.
             (1) Military. The EWP range requirement approximates 4,000 N.M. 
under Mil C 5011-A fuel reserve criteria. An exception is in the Pacific Area 
where the range requirement approximates 5,500 N.M. per Mil C 5011-A.  Fuel 
for the 4»000 N.M. will be contained in the wing area whereas the tankage 
required for the additional 1,500 N.M. can be located at the designer's dis-
cretion except that no fuel will be located in the cabin or adjacent to the 
cockpit area. The EWP payload of 50.000 pounds for a distance of 4S000 N.M. 
will be accomplished with a load factor (maneuver) of at least 2,5 (3.75 
ultimate). In recognition of the need for a balance of design characteristics
the EWP payload for the 5,500 N.M. range condition will be at least 20?000 
pounds and may be accomplished at some reduction in load factor but in no case 
less than a load factor of 2.25.
*            *            *            *            *            *          *
         i. Landing and Takeoff Distance. The aircraft at its maximum take-
off gross weight, i.e., that weight required to transport a payload of 50,000 
pounds a distance of 4, 000 N.M. (Mil C 5011-A), will require a runway length 
of no more than 6,000 feet to take off and land (at maximum landing weight) 
under CAR transport category rules.  (3 engine over a 35 foot obstacle)
         j. Personnel/Air Evacuation Capabilities. The aircraft is basically 
a cargo aircraft and will be designed as such. However, in recognition of 
certain Emergency War Plan requirements and peacetime training considerations, 
the aircraft will include provisions (only) for plug-in type seats over the 
entire floor of the cabin.  Provisions for installation of 42 temporary 
litters in two rows, triple tiered, will be located in the middle of the 
cabin.  These provisions will be at an absolute minimum cost in terms of 
money, space, and weight and further, will in no way compromise the cargo 
envelope cross section of a minimum of 10' x 9'.
        k.  Safety and Comfort Provisions.
*            *            *            *            *            *          *
            (l) Emergency oxygen for eight crew members and troops will be
provided in accordance with AFR 60-16.  The crew oxygen system should be inte-
gral with the aircraft whereas the troop oxygen may be of the portable type.
*            *            *            *            *            *          *
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            (7) Heating and ventilation provisions in the cabin as required 
to preclude freezing of cargo and adverse effect upon the health of troops.
        1. Loadability
*            *            *            *            *            *          *
           (4)  Materials handling equipment will be in accordance with 
463L and therefore will not be a design function of this SOR, except that 
it will not compromise the useable dimensions of the cargo compartment. For
performance calculations, evaluation, etc.  The operating weight of the
aircraft will reflect 4,000 pounds of materials handling equipment.
           (5)  Tie-down devices of 5,000 pounds capacity should be pro-
vided on a 20 inch grid pattern except fittings on extreme sides of aircraft 
floor which should possess a capacity of 10,000 pounds.  These criteria apply 
to the entire cabin including extra crew compartment and loading ramp. In 
addition, each fitting will be of the type that accommodates the standard
Air Force seat.
*            *            *            *            *            *          *
                 (a) Capability of opening the tail loading doors in flight 
at reduced airspeeds in order that all or part of the cargo may be jettisoned 
during emergency flight conditions or airdropped when desirable from a mission 
standpoint.  The largest item being considered for airdrop is the Armored 
Reconnaissance Airborne Assault Vehicle.
*            *            *            *            *            *          *
           n. Communications. The aircraft must possess communications equip-
ment to facilitate control from command post(s) located anywhere in the 
world.  In addition, the aircraft must possess equipment which will allow 
unrestricted world wide operations.  The aircraft will be equipped with an 
intercommunications system that will permit communication between the 
aircraft commander, loadmaster, jumpmaster, cabin occupants and certain 
ground control personnel outside of, but adjacent to, the aircraft.  For the 
commercial version, suitable communications equipment will be provided in 
accordance with FAA regulations.  Antennae appropriate to the communications 
equipment will be incorporated into the basic design of the aircraft. The
required items for the military version are as follows:
               (1)  VHF (ARC-73 type)
               (2)  Dual Single Sideband (400 Watt)
               (3)  UHF
               (4)  Interphone/public address system
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           o. Navigation.  The military version of the aircraft must possess 
appropriate navigation equipment to facilitate world wide operations.  For 
the commercial version, suitable navigation equipment will be provided in 
accordance with FAA regulations.  Antennae appropriate to the communications
equipment will be incorporated into the basic design of the aircraft. 
The required items for the military version are as follows:
           (1)  Dual Low Frequency ADF
           (2)  Dual VOR/ILS
           (3)  Dual TACAN
           (4)  Doppler (Dual) Navigation System
           (5)  Weather Contour Radar
           (6)  Dual ATC Transponders
*            *            *            *            *            *          *
     7.   GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS.
*            *            *            *            *            *          *
          e.  Miscellaneous.  The following design features will be included:
              (1)  Cockpit. Four crew positions will be furnished in the
military versions two pilots, systems engineer and navigator and in
addition, a stowable duty station will be provided for flight check
personnel. For the commercial version crew positions will be in accordance 
with FAA regulations.
              (2) Refueling Provisions.  Single point refueling provisions
are required.
 
              (3) Thrust Augmentation.  Auxiliary thrust augmentation is not
required.   If unacceptable thrust degradation results due to ambient 
temperatures and/or other conditions, water injection may be utilized.
              (4) Thrust Reversers. Thrust reversers are required.
//signed//
WILLARD W. SMITH
Brigadier General, USAF 
Deputy Director of Operational Requirements 
DCS/Operations
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